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The fifth dimension of biology

By Anthony Campbell

Rubicon front cover

Rubicon, the fifth dimension of biology is a revolutionary new theory that will change your understanding all life on Earth, over 4000 million years of evolution. What happens in our brain when we get an inspired idea, feel sexy, or go to sleep? How is it that people can carry a virus such as AIDS, or a bacterium such as TB, and yet not be ill? Why do bees buzz? What happens when a sperm fertilises and egg, or a seed starts to grow into a plant or tree? How does a heartbeat occur once a second? What was the threshold crossed that led to the demise of the dinosaurs, and most of life, some 80 million years ago? On 10–11 January 49 BC, Julius Caesar (100–40 AD) crossed a small river, the Rubicon, on the east side of Italy, declaring war on the neighbouring province. The Rubicon hypothesis has no such aggressive intent. It simply means that a threshold has been crossed. Rubicon redefines phenomena in animals, plants and microbes, based on cells, whole organisms and ecosystems crossing a threshold that determines if, and when, a biological event occurs. This is the key to understanding all the processes upon which life and death on Earth depend. Rubicon also provides the framework to understand what will happen to ecosystems as a result of climate change and global warming. It also shows how evolution by Natural Selection, revealed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, really works in real time, and over millions of years. Amazingly, a new technology has evolved based on genetic engineering that enables us to examine the chemical basis of Rubicon in individual live cells, and even whole organisms. Who would have thought that a simple atom like calcium inside cells would trigger the Rubicon of a nerve firing, a leg moving, an insulin cell secreting, the pain from a wasp sting, a luminous jellyfish flashing, or even a leaf falling in autumn. All this is revealed in this inspiring book. Enjoy, and email us your comments and questions to

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